Fluid Mechanisms

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Course Unit Code338-0523/02
Number of ECTS Credits Allocated4 ECTS credits
Type of Course Unit *Compulsory
Level of Course Unit *Second Cycle
Year of Study *First Year
Semester when the Course Unit is deliveredWinter Semester
Mode of DeliveryFace-to-face
Language of InstructionCzech
Prerequisites and Co-Requisites There are no prerequisites or co-requisites for this course unit
Name of Lecturer(s)Personal IDName
PAV70doc. Ing. Bohuslav Pavlok, CSc.
HRU38doc. Dr. Ing. Lumír Hružík
BOJ01doc. Ing. Marian Bojko, Ph.D.
DVO31Ing. Lukáš Dvořák, Ph.D.
FOJ077Ing. Kamil Fojtášek, Ph.D.
BUR262Ing. Adam Bureček, Ph.D.
Students will acquaint with the basic concepts from field of Fluid mechanisms: hydraulic mechanisms, pneumatic mechanisms, hydraulic and pneumatic circuit. They will acquaint with the structure of hydraulic and pneumatic circuits, basic hydraulic and pneumatic components, their function, construction, characteristics, use in circuits. Students will learn to calculate hydraulic and pneumatic circuits in steady state and solve the starting and braking of hydraulic drives on examples. They will learn to design simpler hydraulic and pneumatic circuits and set them on practicators in the laboratory. Students will acquire basic knowledge of the operation, maintenance, measurement and diagnostics of hydraulic and pneumatic equipment.
Learning Outcomes of the Course Unit
Students will acquaint in the subject Fluid mechanisms with function, structure and properties of fluid mechanisms and their components. The subject is divided into these parts: a general introduction, basic calculations of fluid mechanisms, elements of fluid systems, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and gears including methods of their controls, hydrodynamic mechanisms, application of fluid mechanisms.
Course Contents
The program of lectures

Week Lectures content
1 Fluid mechanism: definition, composition, division, function.
Hydraulic circuit: structure, function diagrams. Graphical elements of the brand.
Pneumatic circuit: structure, function diagrams. Graphical elements of the brand.
2 The basic hydraulic circuits: syntax, examples of practical applications.
3 Working fluids for hydraulic circuits: types, properties, applications.
4 Fundamentals of the theory of hydrostatic circuits: computation of the hydraulic circuit
steady state.
5 Hydrostatic converters: definitions, distribution, characteristic
parameters and their mutual relations. Efficiency. Static characteristics.
6 Hydrostatic rotary converters: design, function,
parameters, characteristics, applications. Control of the geometric volume of hydrostatic
7 Rocking motors. Linear motors. Seals in hydraulics.
Multipliers pressure. Hydraulic units.
8 Distributors, one-way valves, controlled one-way valves,
two-way hydraulic lock, stop valves.
9 Choke. Control of variable resistance. Flow control valves. Pressure valves.
10 Hydraulic accumulators and their use in circuits. Filters and Filtration
11 Proportional technology. Servo technology.
12 Track Drive. Pneumatic actuators and pneumatic control systems.
13 Starting and stopping power. Volume control. Hydrostatic transmission. Applications.
14 Application of hydraulics in the nuclear power industry

Program of exercises and seminars + individual students' work

Week Refill exercises and seminars
1 Fluid power: applications. Introduction to the laboratories of the department.
2 Graphic symbols of the elements.
3 Practice graphical symbols of elements, synthesis of simple
hydraulic circuits.
4 Basic hydraulic circuits: demonstrations of practicators.
TEST 1: Graphic symbols of the elements. The test may receive up to 10 points.
5 Working fluids: examples of viscosity and compressibility. Hydrostatic
converters: examples of the fundamental relationships between the parameters of hydrostatic
converters. Efficiency.
6 Proposal for a hydraulic circuit, including the specification elements.
7 Hydraulic calculation of pipe: Friction pressure loss in piping and
hoses, a local pressure drop.
8 Program 1: Measurement unit p- Q characteristics. Determination
flow efficiency. The program can receive up to 5 points. Program No. 2: Measurement
p-Q characteristics of hydraulic components. The program can receive up to 5 points.
9 Linear motors: practice the basic relations. Program No. 3:
Proposal for a linear hydraulic motor. Calculation of the buckling strength. The program can be
receive up to 10 points. Seals linear motors: examples.
10 Program No. 4: Experimental determination of elastic modulus of mineral oil systems - hoses, mineral oil systems - pipe, oil hose itself. For fulfilling the role can receive up to 5 points.
11 Starting and braking of hydromotors with mass.
12 Proceedings hydraulic flow control valves. Design, calculation. Demonstration of
practicator. Measurement characteristics of the throttle valve.
13 Types of pneumatic circuits - use of practicators.
14 Design and calculation of battery power. Credit.

List of questions to examination

No question wording of the question
1 Working fluids for hydraulic circuits: physical properties
lubricity, chemical properties.
2 Working fluids for hydraulic circuits: mineral oil, heavy
flammable liquids, organic liquids.
3 Hydrostatic Transducers: definition, characteristic parameters
efficiency, static characteristics.
4 Transmitters Hydrostatic gear, vane, screw.
5 Hydrostatic radial piston transducers.
6 Hydrostatic axial piston transducers.
7 Managing geometric volume hydrostatic transducer. Control of
constant pressure and constant power.
8 Linear motors: design, calculation, production technology.
9 Part-turn motors. Hydraulic units. Multipliers pressure.
10 Seals in hydraulics.
11 Distributors.
12 One-way valves, controlled one-way valves, bilateral
hydraulic lock, stop valves.
13 Butterfly valves. Flow control valves.
14 Pressure valves.
15 Hydraulic accumulators and their use in circuits.
16 Proportional technology.
17 Servo technology.
18 Filters and filtration of liquids.
19 Pipes, hoses, fittings. Calculation of pressure loss in piping and
20 Hydraulic drive: the drive structure, steady-state drive.
21 Acceleration and braking power.
22 Hydraulic circuits open and closed.
23 Control of hydraulic power variable resistor.
24 Positive traction control. Hydrostatic transmission.
25 Pneumatic drives: sources, distribution and compressed air.
26 Pneumatic motors: structure, characteristics, and management.
Recommended or Required Reading
Required Reading:
[1] EXNER, H. et al. Basic Principles and Components of Fluid Technology. Lohr am Main, Germany: Rexroth AG., 1991. 344 p. ISBN 3-8023-0266-4.
[2] EWALD, R. et al. Proportional and Servo-valve Technology. Lohr am Main, Germany: Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003. 300 p.
[1] Kopáček, J.,Pavlok, B. Tekutinové mechanismy. Skriptum. Ostrava: VŠB-TU
Ostrava, 1994. 151 s. ISBN 80-7078-238-2.
[2] Pavlok, B. Hydraulické prvky a systémy. Díl 1. Skriptum. Ostrava: VŠB-TU
Ostrava, 1999. 154 s. ISBN 80-7078-620-5.
[3] Pavlok, B. Hydraulické prvky a systémy. Díl 2. Skriptum. Ostrava: VŠB-TU
Ostrava, 2008. 150 s. ISBN 978-80-248-1827-6.
Recommended Reading:
[1] HEHN, H. et al. Fluid Power Troubleshooting. New York : Marcel Dekker. 1995. 647 p. ISBN 0-8247-9275-0.
[2] GÖTZ, W. Hydraulics. Theory and Applications. Ditzingen, Germany: OMEGON, 1998. 291 s. ISBN 3-980-5925-3-7.
[1] HRUŽÍK, L. Experimentální úlohy v tekutinových mechanizmech.
[online]. Ostrava: VŠB - TU Ostrava, 2008. 61 s. ISBN 978-80-248-1912-9.
[2] PAVLOK, B., HRUŽÍK, L., BOVA, M. Hydraulická zařízení strojů. Ostrava : VŠB-TU Ostrava, 2007. 116 s. http://www.338.vsb.cz/PDF/hydraulicka-zarizeni-stroju.pdf
[3]PAVLOK,B. Základní konstrukční celky. Ostrava : VŠB-TU Ostrava, 2008. 41 s. http://www.338.vsb.cz/PDF/zakladni-konstrukcni-celky.pdf
[4]PAVLOK,B. Potrubní systémy a armatury. Ostrava : VŠB-TU Ostrava, 2011. 81 s. http://www.338.vsb.cz/PDF/Dil1_Pav.pdf
[5] Pivoňka, J. a kol. Tekutinové mechanismy. Praha: SNTL Praha, 1987. 623 s.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Lectures, Tutorials, Experimental work in labs, Project work
Assesment methods and criteria
Task TitleTask TypeMaximum Number of Points
(Act. for Subtasks)
Minimum Number of Points for Task Passing
Exercises evaluation and ExaminationCredit and Examination100 (100)51
        Exercises evaluationCredit35 18
        ExaminationExamination65 16