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Fluid Mechanisms

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Course Unit Code338-0523/02
Number of ECTS Credits Allocated4 ECTS credits
Type of Course Unit *Compulsory
Level of Course Unit *Second Cycle
Year of Study *First Year
Semester when the Course Unit is deliveredWinter Semester
Mode of DeliveryFace-to-face
Language of InstructionCzech
Prerequisites and Co-Requisites There are no prerequisites or co-requisites for this course unit
Name of Lecturer(s)Personal IDName
PAV70doc. Ing. Bohuslav Pavlok, CSc.
HRU38doc. Dr. Ing. Lumír Hružík
BOJ01doc. Ing. Marian Bojko, Ph.D.
DVO31Ing. Lukáš Dvořák, Ph.D.
FOJ077Ing. Kamil Fojtášek, Ph.D.
BUR262Ing. Adam Bureček, Ph.D.
In the subject "Fluid Mechanisms", students deal with function, structure, properties and applications of fluid, i.e. hydraulic and pneumatic mechanisms. The subject is divided into the following sections: general introduction, basic calculations of fluid mechanisms, elements of fluid systems, their construction, functions and characteristics, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and transmissions, including ways of their control, application of fluid mechanisms. The exercise is focused on calculations of fluid mechanisms and laboratory measurements.
Learning Outcomes of the Course Unit
Students will learn the basic concepts of fluid mechanisms: hydraulic mechanism, pneumatic mechanisms, hydraulic and pneumatic circuit. Become familiar with the composition of hydraulic and pneumatic circuits, basic hydraulic and pneumatic components, their functions, structures, characteristics using the circuit. Students will learn to count instances hydraulic and pneumatic circuits in steady state and solve the starting and braking hydraulic actuators. Learn to design simple hydraulic and pneumatic circuits and compile them on trainer in the laboratory. Students acquire basic knowledge of the operation, maintenance, measurement and diagnostics of hydraulic and pneumatic equipment.
Course Contents
The program of lectures

Week Lectures content
1 Fluid mechanism: definition, composition, division, function.
Hydraulic circuit: structure, function diagrams. Graphical elements of the brand.
Pneumatic circuit: structure, function diagrams. Graphical elements of the brand.
2 The basic hydraulic circuits: syntax, examples of practical applications.
3 Working fluids for hydraulic circuits: types, properties, applications.
4 Fundamentals of the theory of hydrostatic circuits: computation of the hydraulic circuit
steady state.
5 Hydrostatic converters: definitions, distribution, characteristic
parameters and their mutual relations. Efficiency. Static characteristics.
6 Hydrostatic rotary converters: design, function,
parameters, characteristics, applications. Control of the geometric volume of hydrostatic
7 Rocking motors. Linear motors. Seals in hydraulics.
Multipliers pressure. Hydraulic units.
8 Distributors, one-way valves, controlled one-way valves,
two-way hydraulic lock, stop valves.
9 Choke. Control of variable resistance. Flow control valves. Pressure valves.
10 Hydraulic accumulators and their use in circuits. Filters and Filtration
11 Proportional technology. Servo technology.
12 Track Drive. Pneumatic actuators and pneumatic control systems.
13 Starting and stopping power. Volume control. Hydrostatic transmission. Applications.
14 Application of hydraulics in the nuclear power industry

Program of exercises and seminars + individual students' work

1. Fluid mechanism: applications. Video film.
2. Graphic symbols of the elements.
3. Project of graphical symbols of elements, synthesis of simple hydraulic circuits.
4. Basic hydraulic circuits: demonstration on the trainer. TEST number 1: Graphic symbols of the elements. Basic relationship from fluid mechanics. The test may receive up to 10 points.
5. Hydraulic fluids: examples on the viscosity and compressibility. Hydrostatic converters: examples of the basic relationships between the parameters hydrostatic converters. Efficiency.
6. Project No. 1. Design of a hydraulic circuit including the specification elements. The project can receive up to 10 points.
7. Calculation of parameters of the hydraulic circuit in the steady state with efficiency. Demonstration of a geometric control volume pump.
8. Hydraulic cylinder: practice the basic relations. Design of hydraulic cylinder. Seals of hydraulic cylinder.
9. Acceleration and braking of the hydraulic motor with load.
10. Control the hydro motor by control valves. Design, calculation. Demonstration of the trainer. Measurement of characteristics of the throttle valve.
11. Hydraulic calculation of pipe: friction pressure loss in piping and hoses. Pressure losses in piping and their local measurements. Project No. 2. Measurement p-Q characteristics of hydraulic components. The project can receive up to 5 points.
12. Proposal hydrostatic transmission.
13. Project No. 3. Composition of pneumatic circuits - use of trainer. Task 4: To meet the job can receive up to 10 points.
14. Design and calculation of accumulator. Credit.

List of questions to examination

No question wording of the question
1 Working fluids for hydraulic circuits: physical properties lubricity, chemical properties.
2 Working fluids for hydraulic circuits: mineral oil, heavy flammable liquids, organic liquids.
3 Hydrostatic Transducers: definition, characteristic parameters efficiency, static characteristics.
4 Transmitters Hydrostatic gear, vane, screw.
5 Hydrostatic radial piston transducers.
6 Hydrostatic axial piston transducers.
7 Managing geometric volume hydrostatic transducer. Control of constant pressure and constant power.
8 Linear motors: design, calculation, production technology.
9 Part-turn motors. Hydraulic units. Multipliers pressure.
10 Seals in hydraulics.
11 Distributors.
12 One-way valves, controlled one-way valves, bilateral hydraulic lock, stop valves.
13 Butterfly valves. Flow control valves.
14 Pressure valves.
15 Hydraulic accumulators and their use in circuits.
16 Proportional technology.
17 Servo technology.
18 Filters and filtration of liquids.
19 Pipes, hoses, fittings. Calculation of pressure loss in piping and fittings.
20 Hydraulic drive: the drive structure, steady-state drive.
21 Acceleration and braking power.
22 Hydraulic circuits open and closed.
23 Control of hydraulic power variable resistor.
24 Positive traction control. Hydrostatic transmission.
25 Pneumatic drives: sources, distribution and compressed air.
26 Pneumatic motors: structure, characteristics, and management.
Recommended or Required Reading
Required Reading:
[1] EXNER, H. et al. Hydraulics, Basic Principles and Components. Würzburg, Germany: Bosch Rexroth AG., 2011. 326 p. ISBN 978-3-9814879-3-0.
[2] GÖTZ, W. Hydraulics. Theory and Applications. Ditzingen, Germany: OMEGON, 1998. 291 s. ISBN 3-980-5925-3-7.
[3] DODDANNAVAR, RAVI BARNARD, ANDRIES. (2005). Practical Hydraulic Systems - Operation and Troubleshooting for Engineers and Technicians. Elsevier. Online version available at:
[1] PAVLOK, B., HRUŽÍK, L., BOVA, M. Hydraulická zařízení strojů. Ostrava : VŠB-TU Ostrava, 2007. 116 s.
[2] KOPÁČEK, J., Žáček, M. Pneumatická zařízení strojů. Ostrava : VŠB-TU Ostrava, 2003. 94 s. ISBN 80-248-0442-5.
[3] KOPÁČEK, J., PAVLOK, B. Tekutinové mechanismy. Ostrava : VŠB-TU Ostrava,
1994. 156 s. ISBN 80-7078-238-2.
Recommended Reading:
[1] EWALD, R. et al. Proportional and Servo-valve Technology. Lohr am Main, Germany: Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003. 300 p.
[2] HEHN, H. et al. Fluid Power Troubleshooting. New York : Marcel Dekker. 1995. 647 p. ISBN 0-8247-9275-0.
[3] MANRING. (2005). Hydraulic Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons. Online version available at:
SMC - eLEARNING. available from (username and password will be assigned by teacher, Pneumatic Systems module, Hydraulics module)
Another study support -
[1] PAVLOK, B. Základní konstrukční celky. Ostrava: VŠB – TU Ostrava, 2008. 41 s. Dostupné z:
[2] PAVLOK, B. Potrubní systémy a armatury. Ostrava: VŠB – TU Ostrava, 2011. 81 s. Dostupné z:
[3] PAVLOK, B. Hydraulické prvky a systémy. Díl 1. Ostrava: VŠB – TU Ostrava, 1999. 158 s. ISBN 80-7078-620-5.
[4] PAVLOK, B. Hydraulické prvky a systémy. Díl 2. Ostrava: VŠB – TU Ostrava, 2008. 150 s. ISBN 978-80-248-1827-6.
[5] KOPÁČEK, J. Pneumatické mechanismy. Díl I. Ostrava: VŠB – TU Ostrava, 1996. 267 s. ISBN 80-7078-306-0.
[6] PIVOŇKA, J. A KOL. Tekutinové mechanismy. Praha : SNTL, 1987. 623 s.
[7] Rexroth, Bosch Group. Fluidní technika. Průmyslová hydraulika. Základy. Brno: Bosch Rexroth, spol. s r. o., 2012. 260 s.
[8] EXNER, H. et al. Hydraulics, Basic Principles and Components. Würzburg, Germany: Bosch Rexroth AG., 2011. 326 p. ISBN 978-3-9814879-3-0.
[9] EWALD, R. et al. Proportional and Servo-valve Technology. Lohr am Main, Germany: Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003. 300 p
SMC - eLEARNING. dostupné z (uživatelské jméno a heslo přidělí vyučující, modul Pneumatické systémy - česká a anglická verze, modul Hydraulics - anglická verze)
Další studijní opory na
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Lectures, Tutorials, Experimental work in labs, Project work
Assesment methods and criteria
Task TitleTask TypeMaximum Number of Points
(Act. for Subtasks)
Minimum Number of Points for Task Passing
Exercises evaluation and ExaminationCredit and Examination100 (100)51
        Exercises evaluationCredit35 18
        ExaminationExamination65 16