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Feedback plays a crucial role in the teaching and learning of academic writing. Thanks to constructive feedback, the author finds out how well s/he succeeds in meeting the reader's expectations, how others perceive their text, and on the basis of this, s/he can then refine and reshape it. Giving feedback is a skill that needs to be taught.

In general, we distinguish between feedback that focuses on higher-order and lower-order concerns. Higher-order concerns are the content, logic, and structure of the text. Lower-order concerns are related to the problems with the language, especially at the level of grammar and mechanical errors, such as typos.

If the text is more complex, it is appropriate to provide feedback on individual versions. It is advisable to focus initially primarily on content and structure (i.e. higher-order concerns) and to address language problems only when they are serious enough to hinder understanding of the author's message. Only in edited versions of the text, when the text has the necessary content and coherent composition, is it appropriate to pay close attention to language. Too much feedback can overwhelm students and feedback can become counterproductive.