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Refining and Steel Casting

* Exchange students do not have to consider this information when selecting suitable courses for an exchange stay.

Course Unit Code618-2002/02
Number of ECTS Credits Allocated5 ECTS credits
Type of Course Unit *Compulsory
Level of Course Unit *First Cycle
Year of Study *Third Year
Semester when the Course Unit is deliveredWinter Semester
Mode of DeliveryFace-to-face
Language of InstructionCzech, English
Prerequisites and Co-Requisites Course succeeds to compulsory courses of previous semester
Name of Lecturer(s)Personal IDName
MIH50prof. Ing. Karel Michalek, CSc.
SAW002doc. Ing. Markéta Tkadlečková, Ph.D.
Subject is read with the purpose of understanding of basic theoretical and practical knowledge of methods of secondary metallurgy during treatment of liquid steel. Students will be also introduced to basic findings from the field of steel casting, namely during classic method into ingots and especially during progressive method by the help of continuous casting.
Learning Outcomes of the Course Unit
Acquired knowledge:
-student will be able to characterize the basic technologies of the secondary metallurgy and their theoretical essence
-student will be able to describe the principle and course of steel solidification together with presentation of particulate technologies of steel casting

Acquired skills:
-student will be able to use his knowledge for description of basis of theory and practice of secondary steel treatment and steel casting
-student will be able to develop his theoretical and practical findings during his further studies
Course Contents
1.Causes of Reasons of the development of methods of secondary metallurgy, its importance, dividing of methods.
2.Elements of steel, behaviour of elements during steel refining.
3.Refining of steel by the help of inert gases, effects, technologies, flotation of non-metallic inclusions by the inert gas, absorption of inclusions by the slag.
4.Gases in the steel, degassing of steel, basis, mechanism, vacuum steel refining, technological methods.
5.Steel refining by the help of synthetic slags, composition of slags, kinetics of processes.
6.Ladle furnaces, importance during steel treatment at the secondary metallurgy, dividing. Inputting of cored and Al wires into the liquid steel, importance, technology, modification of inclusions.
7.Steel casting, equipment of cast houses, characteristics of basic technologies.
8.Steel casting into ingot-moulds, top-pouring, uphill casting, steel crystallisation, structure of ingots, micro- and macro-segregation.
9.Ingots defects of killed and rimmed steel.
10.Continuous steel casting, dividing, advantages, disadvantages, construction of the CCM.
11.Secondary metallurgy, optimization of steel flowing, submerged nozzles.
12.Steel solidification in the mould, primary, secondary and tertiary cooling zone, dividing of blanks.
13.Defects of continuously cast blanks.
14.New directions at casting of blanks.
Recommended or Required Reading
Required Reading:
GHOSH, A.: Secondary Steelmaking - Principles and Applications. New York, 2001, 322 p.
FRUEHAN, R. J.: The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel, AISE Steel Foundation, 1998, 767 p.
MICHALEK, K., SOCHA, L., ADOLF, Z., BAŽAN, J.: Rafinace a odlévání oceli. Studijní opora, VŠB-TUO, 2013, 102 s.
ADOLF, Z.: Mimopecní rafinace oceli, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 1991, 133 s.
BÖHM, Z.: Plynulé odlévání oceli. SNTL Praha, 1992, 443 s.
GHOSH, A.: Secondary Steelmaking - Principles and Applications. New York, 2001, 322 p.
Recommended Reading:
STOLTE, G.: Secondary Metallurgy - Fundamentals Processes Applications. Düsseldorf, 2002, 216 p.
YOGESHWAR, S., TOSHIHIKO, E.: Tundish Technology for Clean Steel Production, World Scientific, 2007, 313 p.
ŠMRHA, L.: Tuhnutí a krystalizace ocelových ingotů, SNTL Praha, 1983, 305 s.
KEPKA, M. Rafinace oceli. 1. vyd. Praha, SNTL, 1989. 211 s.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Lectures, Tutorials
Assesment methods and criteria
Task TitleTask TypeMaximum Number of Points
(Act. for Subtasks)
Minimum Number of Points for Task Passing
Credit and ExaminationCredit and Examination100 (100)51
        CreditCredit30 21
        ExaminationExamination70 30