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ECTS Course Overview

Metallurgy of Pure Metals

* Exchange students do not have to consider this information when selecting suitable courses for an exchange stay.

Course Unit Code637-3008/02
Number of ECTS Credits Allocated6 ECTS credits
Type of Course Unit *Compulsory
Level of Course Unit *Second Cycle
Year of Study *
Semester when the Course Unit is deliveredSummer Semester
Mode of DeliveryFace-to-face
Language of InstructionCzech, English
Prerequisites and Co-Requisites Course succeeds to compulsory courses of previous semester
Name of Lecturer(s)Personal IDName
DRA30prof. Ing. Jaromír Drápala, CSc.
New areas of advanced science and technology, for example, semiconductors, microelectronics, optoelectronics, superconducting materials, vacuum technology, nuclear metallurgy, space industry, require materials, metals and their special alloys and compounds with high chemical purity and defined physical and structural parameters and specific applied properties. The “Metallurgy of pure metals” is a subject of university courses dealing with methods of refining and preparation of high purity substances. A special attention is paid not only to the high degree of chemical purity attainable by chemical or physico-chemical or hydrometallurgical methods, such as sorption, extraction, crystallization from aqueous solutions, electrolysis, and also by pyro-metallurgical methods such as crystallization from melts, evaporation, condensation and transport reactions, electro-transport, diffusion separation of substances, removal of gases from melts and vacuum refining of metals.
Learning Outcomes of the Course Unit
- student will be able to define the thermodynamic and kinetic factors necessary for the assessment of refining effect in the area of the metallurgy of pure metals,
- student will be able to describe and characterize basic kinds of methods for purification of materials using pyro-, hydro- or electrometallurgical processes
- student will be able to classify and clear up the fundamental crystallization methods for preparation of crystals with defined characteristics
- student will be able to consider a choice of suitable physical, physico-chemical and metallurgical methods for particular cases of synthesis or purification of metals, alloys and compounds,
- student will be able to evaluate and apply theoretical knowledge, e.g. when proposing an optimal technology for purification of metals or their micro-doping.
Course Contents
1. Theoretical fundamentals of preparation of highly pure materials, properties and signification of pure materials. Methods of description of purity, influence of impurities on the substance properties. Classification of methods of separation and refining of substances, stages of cleaning and fundamentals at the highly pure materials production.
2. Theoretic principles of ion exchange, chromatography, sorption and extraction.
3. Theoretic principles of distillation, rectification, transport reactions, electro-dialysis, electrolysis, electro-transport.
4. Equilibrium distribution coefficient - methods of determination, retrograde solubility, correlation dependencies of ko on different parameters.
5. Thermodynamic methods of determination ko, theory of ideal, dilute, regular and real solutions (Romanenko, Kaufman, Pelton methods).
6. Ternary systems, distribution coefficient in ternary system.
7. Conditions on the phase crystal - melt interface, kinetic and effective distribution coefficient, Burton - Prim – Slichter equation.
8. Methods of kef determination from experimental results, method of the material balance, Vigdorovich method, frozen zone, slot method.
9. Jackson's and Temkin's theory of crystallization, kinetics of the growth of crystalline materials. Temperature and concentration conditions of crystallization, temperature and concentration undercooling, consequences, Tiller's equation.
10. Convection in melt, influence of the convection on creation of defects, buoyancy, Marangoni, rotary, magnetic convection.
11. Crystallization methods, classification of crystallization techniques. Directional crystallization, Bridgman's method, Czochralski method of drawing single crystals.
12. Zone melting, multiple zone refining, Burris - Stockman - Dillon theory, final distribution in the zone melting, techniques of zone melting, "floating zone" method. Mass transfer in directional crystallization and zone melting, reasons, consequences. Continuous zone refining, preparation of metals with homogenous distribution of elements, floating crucible method, zone levelling.
13. Epitaxial techniques for the formation of thin layers – LPE, VPE, LE, SPE, EEE, MBE methods. Semiconductor materials, purification and production technology. Preparation of semiconductor compounds from non-stoichiometric melt.
14. Refractory metals, purification and preparation of single crystals. Diffusion, PVD, CVD methods. Physical metallurgical characteristics of highly pure materials and methods of purity determination.
Recommended or Required Reading
Required Reading:
DRÁPALA, J., KUCHAŘ, L. Metallurgy of Pure Metals. Cambridge International Science Publishing Ltd., 2008.
KUCHAŘ, L., DRÁPALA, J. Metalurgie čistých kovů. Vyd. Nadácia R. Kammela, VŠ-TU Košice, 2000.
KUCHAŘ, L. Metalurgie čistých kovů. Krystalizační metody. Skripta VŠB, 1988.
DRÁPALA, J., KUCHAŘ, L. Metalurgie čistých kovů. Návody do cvičení. Skripta VŠB, 1990.
Recommended Reading:
ASM Handbook, Vol. 2, Properties and Selection: Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials. ASM International, 1990.
VENKRBEC, J. Výrobní procesy III. Skripta ČVUT Praha, 1983, 216 s.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Lectures, Individual consultations, Tutorials, Project work
Assesment methods and criteria
Tasks are not Defined