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ECTS Course Overview

Theory of Non-Ferrous Metals and Alloys Processing

* Exchange students do not have to consider this information when selecting suitable courses for an exchange stay.

Course Unit Code637-3012/03
Number of ECTS Credits Allocated6 ECTS credits
Type of Course Unit *Optional
Level of Course Unit *Second Cycle
Year of Study *
Semester when the Course Unit is deliveredSummer Semester
Mode of DeliveryFace-to-face
Language of InstructionCzech, English
Prerequisites and Co-Requisites Course succeeds to compulsory courses of previous semester
Name of Lecturer(s)Personal IDName
BUJ37doc. Ing. Kateřina Skotnicová, Ph.D.
The course focuses on the theoretical foundations of the processes applied at production of non-ferrous metals. Production of non-ferrous metals uses a wide range of raw materials of diverse chemical nature. This is related to the diversity of their processing procedures. Students will learn the bases of pyro-metallurgical, hydro-metallurgical and electro-metallurgical processes, as well as selected processes of production of heavy, light, noble, high-melting, radioactive and rare earth metals. They will also be acquainted with the preparation and technical application of alloys of non-ferrous metals.
Learning Outcomes of the Course Unit
Students completing the course will be able to: classify non-ferrous metals, define and apply basic theoretical knowledge of physical chemistry, chemistry and the theory of metallurgical processes to the processes of production of non-ferrous metals, characterise the basic pre-requisites for running the processes of pyro-, hydro- and electro-metallurgy, classify and explain individual technologies, consider the optimal technological process for the production of selected groups of metals, articulate the strengths and weaknesses of individual technologies, apply the knowledge at solution of technical problems.

Acquired knowledge: theoretical foundations and principles of the production of various non-ferrous metals, characteristics of the most important non-ferrous metals, their physical and mechanical properties, including the areas of their application in practice.

Acquired skills: the ability to determine the thermodynamic conditions for the reduction of non-ferrous metals from their oxides and other compounds, the ability to apply materials based on non-ferrous metals for solving material issues in technical practice.
Course Contents
1. Metals, technical division, production and processing of metals in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Mineral resources for production of non-ferrous metals.
2. Basic metallurgical processes, overview and characteristics. Crushing, sorting and separation. Joining of fine-grained materials, sintering, pelletisation, briquetting. Drying, calcination, dissociation.
3. Roasting processes, chlorinating roasting, sulphating system Fe-SO Cu-S-O. Melting processes.
4. Overview of reduction processes, dissociation of oxides to metals. Reduction processes for production of metals - an overview. Reduction of metal oxides by carbon, C-O system, metals obtained by carbo-thermic processes. Reduction by hydrogen, reduction technology, manufactured metals. Further reduction procedures (aluminothermy, calciothermy, magnesiothermy, silicothermy).
5. Methods of refining metals. Pyro-metallurgical refining processes, chemical methods for refining of metals.
6. Hydrometallurgical processes for extraction of metals (examples, characteristics, basic operations).
7. Processing of spent liquors to the elemental metal, overview of procedures. Electrolysis, types of processes, basic regularities, electrochemical series, stress, hydrogen and oxygen overstress, metals produced by an electrolysis.
8. Pyro-metallurgical procedures for processing of copper ores, basic processes, hydro-metallurgical production methods. Methods of copper refining, basic admixtures and their influence on the properties of copper. Properties and applications of copper, overview of the basic copper alloys, composition, structure, properties.
9. Production of crude lead, basic procedures and fundamental reactions. Refining of crude lead, basic admixtures, properties and applications of lead, overview of basic alloys, composition, structure, properties. Overview of technologies for production of zinc. Properties and use of zinc, overview of basic alloys, influence of composition on the structure and properties.
10. Overview of technologies for production of nickel, nickel refining. Properties and use of nickel and its alloys, division of nickel alloys. Production of noble metals Au, Ag and elements of Pt group. Characteristics of noble metals, division of basic types of noble metals and are of their use.
11. Production of aluminium, raw materials and characterisation of basic processing methods. Electrolysis of Al2O3 and electrolytic refining of aluminium. Properties and uses of aluminium and its alloys, division of alloys. Production of magnesium, properties and use of magnesium and its alloys, division of alloys, structure and properties.
12. Production of tungsten, fundamental reactions, production of chemical compounds and their conversion to metallic tungsten, uses of tungsten. Production of molybdenum, fundamental reactions, reduction of oxides, processing and use of Mo. Production of titanium, fundamental reactions in pyro-metallurgy and hydro-metallurgy of titanium. Properties and use of titanium, effect of additives, titanium alloys.
13. Production of zirconium and hafnium, fundamental reactions. Properties and use of zirconium and hafnium, zirconium alloys. Rare-earth metals, principles, methods of their production. Properties and applications of rare earth metals.
14. Radioactive metals, division. Production of uranium, hydro-metallurgical and pyro-metallurgical reactions. Properties and use of uranium, uranium alloys and compounds used in nuclear engineering, production and properties of thorium.
Recommended or Required Reading
Required Reading:
[1] MOORE, J.J. Chemical Metallurgy. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1990. ISBN 0-7506-1646-6.
[2] MICHNA, Š. et al. Aluminium Materials and Technologies from A to Z. Prešov: Adin, 2007. ISBN 978-80-89244-18-8.
[3] SKOTNICOVÁ, K., M. LOSERTOVÁ, M. KURSA. Theory of production of non-ferrous metals and alloys. Ostrava: VŠB-TU Ostrava, 2015. Dostupné z:
[4] GROOVER, M.P. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems. Hoboken: Wiley, 5th Ed, 2012, 1128 p. ISBN: 978-1-118-39367-3.
[1] KURSA, M. Teorie přípravy neželezných kovů a slitin. Ostrava: VŠB-TU Ostrava, 2013. Dostupné z:
[2] ŠTOFKO, M. a M. ŠTOFKOVÁ. Neželezné kovy. Košice: Emilena, 2000. ISBN 8070995270.
[3] KOMOROVÁ, Ľ. a I. IMRIŠ. Termodynamika v hutníctve. Bratislava: Alfa, 1989. ISBN 80-05-00604-7.
[4] KUCHAŘ, L. Hutnictví neželezných kovů. Ostrava: VŠB, 1987.
[5] GROOVER, M.P. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems. Hoboken: Wiley, 5th Ed, 2012, 1128 p. ISBN: 978-1-118-39367-3.
Recommended Reading:
[1] ABEL, Lois A., ed. ASM handbook: nonferrous alloys and special-purpose materials. Volume 2, Properties and selection: Materials Park: ASM International, c1990. ISBN 0-87170-378-5.
[1] HAVLÍK, T. Hydrometalurgia. Košice: Elfa, 2005. ISBN 80-8073-337-6
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Lectures, Individual consultations, Tutorials
Assesment methods and criteria
Tasks are not Defined