1. Chemical thermodynamics of solutions. Fundamental relations among thermodynamic variables, tabulated values. Equilibrium constants, activity, activity coefficient. Ionic strength of solution and its calculation. Standard conditions, theory of inter-ionic forces, solvatation and association of ions, ionic diameters.
2. General approach for equilibria calculations, algorithms for the solution of more complicated equilibria, systematic approach for the equilibria calculations, balance equations – mass balance and charge balance.
3. Acid / base equilibria. pH of strong / weak acids and bases, salt hydrolysis, pH of buffers, Henderson – Hasselbalch equation, buffer capacity, dependence of pH upon temperature. Polyprotic acids and bases, equilibria distribution of particular species in solution in dependence on pH, construction of logarithmic and semilogarithmic diagrams (both using PC and without using PC), determination of distribution of individual species in solution in dependence on pH, utilization of the diagrams for evaluation of effect of pH at more complicated equilibria (e.g. complex-formation ones).
4. Alcalimetric titrations. Titrant, analyte, titration curves – titration of strong / weak acid and base, pH of equivalence point, indicators. Construction of titration curves on PC – effect of concetration of acid / base, dissociation constant, utilization of mathematic methods for evaluation of titration curves.
5. Titrations in non-aqueous solutions, amfiprotic solvents, titrations of extremely weak acids and bases, titration curves, selectrion of solvents with regard to dissociation constant of extremely weak acid / base, practical utilization, evaluation of titration curves.
6. Complex-formation equilibria. Stability constant of the complex, titration curves, calculation of equilibrium distribution of particular forms (species) of EDTA in dependence on pH, effect of pH during chelatometric determination, construction of titration curves on PC, utilization of mathematic methods for the evaluation of titration curves.
7. Redox equilibria. Redox reactions in organic chemistry, equilibria constant of the reaction, concentration of particular species in solution at redox equilibria, practical utilization of standard redox potentials values, construction of titration curves, equivalence point determination, utilization of mathematic methods for evaluation of titration curves.
8. Precipitation equilibria. Solubility product, solubility, gravimetry, effect of common ion in the solution, effect of indifferent electrolyte, effect of pH of the solution and complex formation on solubility of studied precipitate. Construction of titration curves, utilization of mathematic methods for evaluation of titration curves.
9. Potentiometry and conductometry. Potentiometric titration curve, utilization of mathematic methods for evaluation of titration curves. Calculation of equilibrium constants of reactions, galvanic cells, constant of conductivity cell, Ostwald´s dilution law.
10. Polarography and voltametry, diffusion current, polarographic wave, calculation of number of electrons and protons exchanged during electrode reaction, evaluation of reversibility / irreversibility of electrode reaction, effect of pH on shape of voltametric curves, utilization of voltametry for the determination of mechanism of more complicated redox reactions.
11. Separation methods – extraction, Nernst´s law, distribution constant, extraction yield, distribution ratio, ion exchangers, selectivity coefficient, exchange capacity of ion exchanger.
12. Column chromatography, elution parameters, reduced elution parameters, concept of theoretical plates and effective plates, height – equivalent of theoretic / effective plate, van Deemter equation, column efficiency.
13. Ultimate analysis. Analysis of gases on Orsat apparatus. Optical methods – frekvency, wave number, photon energy, prism disperzion, grating resolution. Polarimetry, refractometry, index of refraction.
14. Absorption spectrometry. Spectral transmittance, absorptance, reflectance, turbidity coefficient, Lambert-Beer´s law, molar absorption coefficient, mass absorption coefficient, mathematic methods used for the evaluation of 2 simultaneous species.
Theoretic / calculation classes
1. Calculation of activity coefficients, ionic strength, fundamental thermodynamic calculations.
2. Solution of more comples equilibria – calculation of equilibrium composition of solution, balance equations.
3. Calculation of pH in dependence of composition of solutions, polyprotic acids and bases, construction of logarithmic and semilogarithmic diagrams.
4. Calculations of titration curves and effect of given parameters on their shape and equivalence point.
5. Selection of suitable indicator, effect of non-aqueous solvent on shape of titration curve.
6. Calculation of equilibrium composition of the solution at complex-formation equilibria, metal content calculation that is not bound to complex, titration curves.
7. Redox equilibria calculation, titration curves, equivalence point determination.
8. Calculations of solubility and equilibrium composition of solution, effect of indifferent electrolyte, pH and other parameters on solubility, titration curves.
9. Potentiometry and conductometry calculations, equilibrium constants calculations, evaluation of potentiometric curves.
10. Polarography and conductometry calculations, number of electrons / protons exchanged during electrode reaction, analytical utilization of diffuse current, determination of reversibility / irreversibility of electrode reaction.
11. Separation methods – calculation of exchange capacity of ion-exchanger, distribution constants and ratios calculations.
12. Column chromatography – calculation of elution parameters, reduced variables, number of theoretic vs. effective plates.
13. Calculation of molecular formula, composition of gaseous sample when analysed on Orsat apparatus, refractivity index.
14. Spectral methods – recalculation of fundamental variables, absorption coefficients, mathematic approach to solution of overllapping peaks.