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ECTS Course Overview

Fluid Mechanisms

* Exchange students do not have to consider this information when selecting suitable courses for an exchange stay.

Course Unit Code338-0302/06
Number of ECTS Credits Allocated5 ECTS credits
Type of Course Unit *Choice-compulsory
Level of Course Unit *First Cycle
Year of Study *
Semester when the Course Unit is deliveredWinter Semester
Mode of DeliveryFace-to-face
Language of InstructionCzech, English
Prerequisites and Co-Requisites Course succeeds to compulsory courses of previous semester
Name of Lecturer(s)Personal IDName
HRU38doc. Dr. Ing. Lumír Hružík
DVO31Ing. Lukáš Dvořák, Ph.D.
VAS024doc. Ing. Martin Vašina, Ph.D.
BUR262Ing. Adam Bureček, Ph.D.
In the subject "Fluid Mechanisms", students deal with function, structure, properties and applications of fluid, i.e. hydraulic and pneumatic mechanisms. The subject is divided into the following sections: general introduction, basic calculations of fluid mechanisms, elements of fluid systems, their construction, functions and characteristics, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and transmissions, including ways of their control, application of fluid mechanisms. The exercise is focused on calculations of fluid mechanisms and laboratory measurements.
Learning Outcomes of the Course Unit
Students will learn the basic concepts of fluid mechanisms: hydraulic mechanism, pneumatic mechanisms, hydraulic and pneumatic circuit. Become familiar with the composition of hydraulic and pneumatic circuits, basic hydraulic and pneumatic components, their functions, structures, characteristics using the circuit. Students will learn to count instances hydraulic and pneumatic circuits in steady state and solve the starting and braking hydraulic actuators. Learn to design simple hydraulic and pneumatic circuits and compile them on trainer in the laboratory. Students acquire basic knowledge of the operation, maintenance, measurement and diagnostics of hydraulic and pneumatic equipment.
Course Contents
Week Lectures

1. Fluid mechanism, fluid power, fluid circuit. Hydraulic and pneumatic circuit: structure, graphics symbols of elements, circuit scheme. Basic hydraulic and pneumatic circuits.
2. Hydraulic fluids: properties, types and applications. Compressed air and its properties.
3. Pressure energy sources - pumps: structure, function, parameters, characteristics, control.
4. Hydraulic motors: structure, function, parameters. Hydraulic cylinder, seals.
5 Compressors and pneumatic motors.
6. Directional control valves. Check valves. Flow conrol valves. Pressure control valves.
7. Flow control valves.
8. Pressure control valves.
9. Proportional control technology, application of proportional control technology.
10. Introduction to servo technology, servo technology applications.
11 Accessories of hydraulic and pneumatic circuits: accumulators, filters, pipes, hoses, tanks, coolers, etc.
12. Hydraulic drive: power structure, steady-state drive, acceleration and braking operation.
13. Control of hydraulic drive: ventil control, volume control. Hydrostatic transmission.
14 Basic operation and service of hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Fault diagnosis, fault prevention. Proactive service.

Week Filling of exercises and seminars

1. Fluid mechanism: applications. Video film.
2. Graphic symbols of the elements.
3. Project of graphical symbols of elements, synthesis of simple hydraulic circuits.
4. Basic hydraulic circuits: demonstration on the trainer. TEST number 1: Graphic symbols of the elements. Basic relationship from fluid mechanics. The test may receive up to 10 points.
5. Hydraulic fluids: examples on the viscosity and compressibility. Hydrostatic converters: examples of the basic relationships between the parameters hydrostatic converters. Efficiency.
6. Project No. 1. Design of a hydraulic circuit including the specification elements. The project can receive up to 10 points.
7. Calculation of parameters of the hydraulic circuit in the steady state with efficiency. Exercise No. 1: Measurement p-Q pump characteristics. Determination of the flow efficiency. The project can receive up to 5 points. Demonstration of a geometric control volume pump.
8. Hydraulic cylinder: practice the basic relations. Design of hydraulic cylinder. Seals of hydraulic cylinder.
9. Acceleration and braking of the hydraulic motor with load.
10. Control the hydro motor by control valves. Design, calculation. Demonstration of the trainer. Measurement of characteristics of the throttle valve.
11. Hydraulic calculation of pipe: friction pressure loss in piping and hoses. Pressure losses in piping and their local measurements. Measurement p-Q characteristics of hydraulic components.
12. Proposal hydrostatic transmission.
13. Project No. 2. Composition of pneumatic circuits - use of trainer. Task 4: To meet the job can receive up to 10 points.
14. Design and calculation of accumulator. Credit.

Questions to exam

1. Hydraulic fluids: physical properties, lubrication ability, chemical properties.
2. Hydraulic fluids: mineral oil, hardly inflammable liquids, organic liquids.
3. Hydrostatic converters: definition, characteristic parameters efficiency, static characteristics.
4. Hydrostatic converters: gear, vane, screw.
5. Hydrostatic radial and axial piston converters.
6. Control of the geometric volume of hydrostatic converters. Control on the constant pressure and constant power.
7. Linear hydro motors: design, calculation, production technology.
8. Angle rotary motors. Hydraulic power units. Multipliers of pressure.
9. Seal in hydraulics.
10. Directional control valves.
11. Check valves.
12. Throttle-valves. Flow control valves.
13. Pressure control valves.
14. Hydraulic accumulators and their use in circuits.
15. Proportional technology.
16. Servo technology.
17. Filters and filtration technology.
18. Pipes, hoses, fittings. Calculation of pressure losses in piping and fittings.
19. Hydraulic drive: structure of drive, steady-state drive.
20. Acceleration and braking of drive.
21. Hydraulic circuits open and closed.
22. Valve control of hydraulic drive.
23. Volume control of drive. Hydrostatic converters.
24. Pneumatic drives: sources, distribution and compressed air.
25. Pneumatic motor: structure, characteristics, control.
26. Thermal calculation of the hydraulic circuit.
Recommended or Required Reading
Required Reading:
[1] EXNER, H. et al. Hydraulics, Basic Principles and Components. Würzburg, Germany: Bosch Rexroth AG., 2011. 326 p. ISBN 978-3-9814879-3-0.
[2] GÖTZ, W. Hydraulics. Theory and Applications. Ditzingen, Germany: OMEGON, 1998. 291 s. ISBN 3-980-5925-3-7.
[3] DODDANNAVAR, RAVI BARNARD, ANDRIES. (2005). Practical Hydraulic Systems - Operation and Troubleshooting for Engineers and Technicians. Elsevier. Online version available at:
[1] PAVLOK, B., HRUŽÍK, L., BOVA, M. Hydraulická zařízení strojů. Ostrava : VŠB-TU Ostrava, 2007. 116 s.
[2] KOPÁČEK, J., Žáček, M. Pneumatická zařízení strojů. Ostrava : VŠB-TU Ostrava, 2003. 94 s. ISBN 80-248-0442-5.
[3] KOPÁČEK, J., PAVLOK, B. Tekutinové mechanismy. Ostrava : VŠB-TU Ostrava,
1994. 156 s. ISBN 80-7078-238-2.
Recommended Reading:
[1] EWALD, R. et al. Proportional and Servo-valve Technology. Lohr am Main, Germany: Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003. 300 p.
[2] HEHN, H. et al. Fluid Power Troubleshooting. New York : Marcel Dekker. 1995. 647 p. ISBN 0-8247-9275-0.
[3] MANRING. (2005). Hydraulic Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons. Online version available at:
SMC - eLEARNING. available from (username and password will be assigned by teacher, Pneumatic Systems module, Hydraulics module)
Another study support -
[1] PAVLOK, B. Základní konstrukční celky. Ostrava: VŠB – TU Ostrava, 2008. 41 s. Dostupné z:
[2] PAVLOK, B. Potrubní systémy a armatury. Ostrava: VŠB – TU Ostrava, 2011. 81 s. Dostupné z:
[3] PAVLOK, B. Hydraulické prvky a systémy. Díl 1. Ostrava: VŠB – TU Ostrava, 1999. 158 s. ISBN 80-7078-620-5.
[4] PAVLOK, B. Hydraulické prvky a systémy. Díl 2. Ostrava: VŠB – TU Ostrava, 2008. 150 s. ISBN 978-80-248-1827-6.
[5] KOPÁČEK, J. Pneumatické mechanismy. Díl I. Ostrava: VŠB – TU Ostrava, 1996. 267 s. ISBN 80-7078-306-0.
[6] PIVOŇKA, J. A KOL. Tekutinové mechanismy. Praha : SNTL, 1987. 623 s.
[7] Rexroth, Bosch Group. Fluidní technika. Průmyslová hydraulika. Základy. Brno: Bosch Rexroth, spol. s r. o., 2012. 260 s.
[8] EXNER, H. et al. Hydraulics, Basic Principles and Components. Würzburg, Germany: Bosch Rexroth AG., 2011. 326 p. ISBN 978-3-9814879-3-0.
[9] EWALD, R. et al. Proportional and Servo-valve Technology. Lohr am Main, Germany: Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003. 300 p
SMC - eLEARNING. dostupné z (uživatelské jméno a heslo přidělí vyučující, modul Pneumatické systémy - česká a anglická verze, modul Hydraulics - anglická verze)
Další studijní opory na
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Lectures, Tutorials, Experimental work in labs, Project work
Assesment methods and criteria
Tasks are not Defined